CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) cameras are the most common scientific cameras. They use a CCD image sensor, which converts light into electrical signals so that the image can be processed and displayed on a monitor.
iCCD (Intensified Charge-Coupled Device) cameras are similar to CCD cameras, but include an intensity amplifier that can amplify very weak light signals, making it possible to detect and record very fast light events.
EMCCD (Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device) cameras are similar to CCD cameras, but include a signal processor that can amplify the electrical signals generated by the sensor.
sCMOS (Scientific Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) cameras are the latest and most advanced types of scientific cameras. They use a CMOS sensor, which is faster and more efficient than CCD sensors, but retains superior performance.